A .30-30 cartridge (center) between 5.56×45mm NATO (left), and 7.62×51mm NATO
Place of origin United States
Variants .25-35 Winchester, .219 Zipper, .30-30 Ackley Improved, 7-30 Waters, .32 Winchester Special
Case type Rimmed, bottlenecked
Bullet diameter .308 in (7.8 mm)
Neck diameter .330 in (8.4 mm)
Shoulder diameter .401 in (10.2 mm)
Base diameter .422 in (10.7 mm)
Rim diameter .506 in (12.9 mm)
Rim thickness .063 in (1.6 mm)
Case length 2.039 in (51.8 mm)
Primer type large rifle
Maximum pressure (SAAMI) 42,000 psi (290 MPa)
Bullet mass/type Velocity Energy
110 gr (7 g) FP 2,684 ft/s (818 m/s) 1,760 ft⋅lbf (2,390 J)
130 gr (8 g) FP 2,496 ft/s (761 m/s) 1,799 ft⋅lbf (2,439 J)
150 gr (10 g) FN 2,390 ft/s (730 m/s) 1,903 ft⋅lbf (2,580 J)
160 gr (10 g) cast LFN 2,330 ft/s (710 m/s) 1,929 ft⋅lbf (2,615 J)
170 gr (11 g) FP 2,227 ft/s (679 m/s) 1,873 ft⋅lbf (2,539 J)
The .30-30 Winchester/.30 Winchester Center Fire (7.8×51mmR) cartridge was first marketed in early 1895 for the Winchester Model 1894 lever-action rifle. The .30-30 (thirty-thirty), as it is most commonly known, was the USA’s first small-bore, sporting rifle cartridge designed for smokeless powder.
The .30 Winchester Smokeless first appeared in Winchester’s catalog No. 55, dated August 1895. When chambered in the Winchester Model 1894 carbine and rifle, it was also known as .30 Winchester Center Fire or .30 WCF. When the cartridge was chambered in the Marlin Model 1893 rifle, rival gunmaker Marlin used the designation .30-30 or .30-30 Smokeless. The added -30 stands for the standard load of 30 grains (1.9 g) of early smokeless powder and is based on late-19th century American naming conventions for black powder-filled cartridges. Both Marlin and Union Metallic Cartridge Co. also dropped the Winchester appellation, as they did not want to put the name of rival Winchester on their products.
The modern designation of .30-30 Winchester was arrived at by using Marlin’s variation of the name with the Winchester name appended as originator of the cartridge, but .30 WCF is still seen occasionally. This designation also probably serves to avoid consumer confusion with the different, yet similarly shaped .30-40 Krag, which has been referred to as .30 US and .30 Army.