The .338 Federal is a rifle cartridge based on the .308 Winchester case necked up to .33 caliber. It was created by Federal Cartridge and Sako in 2006 and intended as a big game cartridge with reasonable recoil for lightweight rifles.

The .338 Federal was designed by Federal Ammunition and it is a SAAMI standardized cartridge that was released in 2006. It compares favorably to the 7mm Remington Magnum. Below is a ballistics table comparing the .338 Federal with other various calibers. Included in the table below is the older .358 Winchester, another cartridge based on the .308 Winchester